The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems, treating the wastewater in centralised treatment plants and discharging the effluent to surface water bodies became the accepted, conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas in Europe in the last century.
India has made considerable progress in sanitation since the launch of the Total Sanitation Campaign. However, concerns have been raised about its sustainability. This documen is the culmination of research and discussions on the experiences of civil society organisations implementing sustainable sanitation campaigns in six Indian states. Their initiative indicate that a typical campaign spread over 3-5 years comprises of 4 distinct phases and involves a series of activities.
Remarkable progress has been made over the last decades in the water and sanitation sector. However, still some 1.1 billion people do not have access to safe water and 2.4 billion lack access to improved sanitation services (WHO, 2000). Over 90% of the people that are currently un-served live in Asia and Africa. The existing frustration is worsened by the fact that much of the gains in service coverage have been offset by population growth and rapid urbanisation.
Local officials in a district in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) province are trying out social “contracts” to encourage villagers to build and use latrines. So far five families in the province’s Timor Tengah Selatan District have signed such a contract, which is countersigned by representatives of three levels of government.
Even though 80% of households in the district have latrines, less than half of them are used, according to local officials. Open defecation is common and people don’t wash their hands.
A report by WHO-UNICEF says that Indians comprised 58 percent of all people who defecate in the open.
This is one statistics that will put India in the poor light. A report by WHO-UNICEF says that Indians comprised 58 percent of all people who defecate in the open. However, the worldwide figures show a decline from the previous years’. The report points out that open defecation worldwide is on decline from 25 per cent in 1990 to 17 per cent in 2008.
Some of the key findings of the report:
Tiruchirappalli City Corporation –the first city in India where open defecation prevented in all slums
During a recent visit to Nepal, researchers from the United Kingdom's Department for International Development Mary Ann Brocklesky and Rebecca Scott shared their verdict on the state of the right to sanitation in Nepal.
NGP stands for Nirmal Gram Puraskar. To add vigour to the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), in June 2003, GoI initiated an incentive scheme for fully sanitized and open defecation free Gram Panchayats, Blocks, and Districts called the Nirmal Gram Puraskar. The incentive pattern is based on population criteria and it varies from Rs.50,000 to Rs.50 lakh. Read More
From Yusuf Kabir, United Nations Children’s Fund, Kolkata
Posted 15 December 2008
I am Yusuf Kabir, working with United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Kolkata, in the Water and Environmental Sanitation Department. I am involved in demonstrating and scaling up of Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) under the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in rural West Bengal, in partnership with panchayats, the West Bengal State Rural Development Department and several NGOs.
“Community Eco-Sanitation Toilets India” which have been developed and published in 2008 by the Wherever the Need (WTN) with support from the Industry’s Humanitarian Support Alliance (IHSAN), the case study seek to encourage self sustaining, ecological projects generated through the self empowerment of the people themselves.