1. What are the Rural Sanitation programs implemented by MoRD?
Government of India had launched Central Rural Sanitation Program (CRSP) in the year 1986 with the objective of accelerating sanitation coverage in rural areas. CRSP was restructured in the year 1999 exhibiting a paradigm shift in the approach and Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was introduced. At present, TSC is the only rural sanitation program implemented by Ministry of Rural Development.
2. What is Total Sanitation Campaign?
Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was launched in 1999 advocating a shift from high subsidy to a low subsidy regime, greater household involvement, demand responsiveness, and providing for the promotion of a range of toilet options to promote increased affordability. It also gives strong emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) and social marketing for demand generation for sanitation facilities, to set up a delivery system through Rural Sanitary Marts (RSMs) and Production Centers (PC) and a thrust on school sanitation. TSC is implemented in a campaign mode-taking district as a unit so that 100 percent saturation in terms of households, Anganwadi and school toilets can be attained which would result in significant health benefits.
3. What is the role of PRIs in TSC implementation?
As per the 73 Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, sanitation is included in the 11th Schedule and is the responsibility of the Panchayats. At the district level, Zilla Panchayat implements the project. Similarly, at the block and village levels, Panchayat Samiti and respective Gram Panchayats are involved in the implementation of TSC. Gram Panchayats have the pivotal role in the implementation of the Total Sanitation Campaign with Voluntary Organisations/ NGOs/ to mobilize for the construction of toilets and also maintain the clean environment by way of safe disposal of wastes. They have the main responsibility in the O&M of the common facilities constructed. Panchayats can also contribute from their own resources for School and Anganwadi Sanitation. Panchayats may also open and operate the Production Centres/Rural Sanitary Marts.